XEN1101 (MDD)

XEN1101, A Differentiated KV7 Potassium Channel Opener 

We are developing XEN1101, a differentiated Kv7 potassium channel opener, for the treatment of epilepsy, major depressive disorder (MDD), and potentially other neurological disorders.

About the Xenon-Sponsored Phase 2 “X-NOVA” XEN1101 Clinical Trial in MDD

Based on promising pre-clinical data with XEN1101 and published clinical data generated from both an open-label study and a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that explored the targeting of KCNQ channels as a treatment for MDD using ezogabine, Xenon is evaluating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of XEN1101 for the treatment of MDD in a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical study – called the “X-NOVA” clinical trial. Following a 4-week screening period, approximately 150 subjects with MDD will be randomized (on a 1:1:1 basis) to three arms for once-daily dosing of XEN1101 (10 mg), XEN1101 (20 mg) or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of 10 mg and 20 mg doses of XEN1101 compared to placebo on improvement of depressive symptoms in subjects diagnosed with moderate to severe MDD, using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score change through week six. Secondary endpoints include improvement of anhedonia symptoms assessed by the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) score change through week six, as well as improvement of anxiety symptoms measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) score change through week six. Topline results from the X-NOVA study are anticipated in the third quarter of 2023.

About the Investigator-Led Phase 2 XEN1101 Clinical Trial in MDD

Xenon is collaborating with the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai to conduct an ongoing investigator-sponsored Phase 2 proof-of-concept, randomized, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled multi-site study of XEN1101 for the treatment of MDD in approximately 60 subjects. The primary objective of the study is to investigate the effect of XEN1101 on the brain reward circuit as measured by the change in bilateral ventral striatum activity as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI). The secondary objectives are to test the effect of XEN1101 compared to placebo on clinical measures of depression and anhedonia using the MADRS and SHAPS scales.

Scientific Rationale for Studying XEN1101 in MDD

Pre-clinical work demonstrates that increased activity of KCNQ type potassium channels reverses depressive phenotypes following chronic social defeat stress (Krishnan et al. 2007; Friedman et al. 2014; Friedman et al. 2016). Mice resilient to depression and anhedonia exhibit increased KCNQ channel activity within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the reward system, dampening the hyperexcitability of the dopamine neurons that is associated with depressive/anhedonia phenotypes observed in the susceptible mice. This susceptible phenotype can be reversed through (a) overexpression of KCNQ channels in the VTA dopamine neurons, (b) direct intra-VTA injection of small molecule KCNQ channel openers, or (c) systemic injection of KCNQ channel openers. Repeated peripheral daily administration of ezogabine, an earlier-generation KCNQ potassium channel modulator, completely reversed the depressive/anhedonic phenotype in the susceptible mice.

In addition to an open label study, statistically significant clinical results were generated from a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that explored the targeting of KCNQ channels as a treatment for MDD and anhedonia using ezogabine (Costi et al. 2021). XEN1101, a next-generation KCNQ channel opener, has been studied in a Phase 2b clinical trial in adult patients with focal onset seizures, and demonstrated compelling efficacy results, with a statistically significant and dose-dependent reduction from baseline in monthly focal seizure frequency when compared to placebo (monotonic dose response; p<0.001).